Benedict, Paul K. (1990). As noted below, many notable linguists have proposed that the Eskimo-Aleut languages and Uralic languages have a common origin, although there is no consensus that this connection is genuine. Ostapirat, Weera. Mesoamerica's attested languages are likewise quite well systematized into six main language families and four other language isolates or small language families, as well as a few unclassified extinct languages, encompassing all of the languages in the region. 16. As the placement of branches is often uncertain, the time, location, and very existence of an urheimat is also often uncertain. Starostin, Sergei A. Flight, C. 1980. As someone else has just said, it's an ethnicity. Isidore Dyen's proposal for New Guinea as the center of dispersal of the Austronesian languages). 3 (March, 1990): 110-116.  Geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza proposes that a Dravidian people were preceded in India by Austroasiatic people, and were present prior to the arrival of Indo-Aryan language speakers in India.. in East Africa. Next to internal linguistic evidence, the reconstruction of a prehistoric homeland makes use of a variety of disciplines, including archaeology and archaeogenetics. If the consensus view regarding the origins of the Nilo-Saharan languages which came to East Africa is adopted, and a North African or Southwest Asian origin for Afro-Asiatic languages is assumed, the linguistic affiliation of East Africa prior to the arrival of Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic languages is left open. Weera Ostapirat is one academic who articulates this position.. Linguistic evidence for the prehistory of the Niger Delta. The Afroasiatic Urheimat is not the same as the Proto-Semitic Urheimat, and several candidates for the former would not be very relevant to the latter. The time of hypothetical ST unity, when the Proto-Han (= Proto-Chinese) and Proto-Tibeto-Burman (PTB) peoples formed a relatively undifferentiated linguistic community, must have been at least as remote as the Proto-Indo-European period, perhaps around 4000 B.C. The proto-language would have been spoken by foragers, about 5,000 years ago. This is suggested by the high language diversity around the middle Volga River, where three highly distinct branches of the Uralic family, Mordvinic, Mari, and Permic, are located. Some scholars associate the Cemetery H culture of the Northern Indus River Valley (specifically Western Punjab) ca. This is about three times as much linguistic diversity at the language family/language isolate level as North America and Mesoamerica combined. Roger Blench, "Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology?," Paper for the Symposium "Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence". The Afro-Asiatic languages include Arabic, Hebrew, Berber, and a variety of other languages now found mostly in Northeast Africa, although the exact boundaries of this language family are disputed in the case of a small number of languages spoken by small numbers of individuals in a few localized areas of Sudan and East Africa.  The language was then largely relexified from what he believes may have been an Austroasiatic language. This is not always the case. The expansion of particular major language families is frequently associated with the adoption of superior food production, military technologies or social organization by a particular group of people that allowed them to expand and exert dominance over neighborhoring societies, either ruling them or replacing them. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. (page 33 ff.) A likely candidate for the homeland of an Italo-Celtic proto-language or dialect continuum is the Urnfield culture and its predecessor, the Tumulus culture of Central Europe (1600 BC). 2006b. the Apache language and Navajo language).  Japanese linguist Shichirō Murayama tried to link Ainu to the Austronesian languages, which include the languages of the Philippines, Taiwan, and Indonesia through both vocabulary and cultural comparisons. 500 CE, took place much more recently than the initial human population of North America, which took place more than 14,000 years ago. There is also dispute over the extent, if any, to which one of those multiple languages of the Korean peninsula prior to its unification gave rise to the Japanese language, and if so, which of those languages was the language of the Yayoi part of the founding group of modern Japan. Colin Renfrew, "Archaeogenetics Towards a New Synthesis?" Razib Khan, "Tutsi probably differ genetically from the Hutu" (August 29, 2011), Razib Khan, "Tutsi genetic, ii" (August 31, 2011), Jared Diamond, "Guns, Germs and Steel" (2000). This speech area is known as the Urheimat. So, it is possible that there were many Yayoi dialects in the period before Old Japanese emerged, of which the dialect of the warring states that ended up prevailing politically as the Japanese state was unified superseded other early Yayoi languages or dialects. These features, and the presence of certain common Semitic lexical items in all Ethio-Semitic languages referring to items that arrived in Africa from the Levant at a time after Semitic languages were known to have been spoken in the Levant, have lent weight to the Levantine proposal. Sidwell, Pascale. There has been speculation regarding the specific Semitic subfamily of Afro-Asiatic languages, again with the Horn of Africa and Southwest Asia—specifically the Levant—being the most common proposals.  Given enough time, natural change in isolated language can obliterate any meaningful linguistic evidence of a known common genetic source for the languages. The Neolithic era concluded in the Yellow River around 1500 BCE. Skeletal remains suggests that the two cultures had fused into a group with a homogeneous physical appearance in Southern Japan by 250 CE. Some languages are language isolates. Oct 26, 2020 - Explore Tiberius Julius Antiochus Epip's board "Urheimat" on Pinterest.  Joseph Greenberg continued that tradition making it the starting point for modern linguistic classification in Africa, with some of his most notable publications going to press starting in the 1960s. Africa-to-Levant hypothesis. There are also competing theories on whether the Afro-Asiatic language family owes its expansion to the Neolithic revolution that originated in an area that includes the range of the Afro-Asiatic language, or was already widespread in the Upper Paleolithic era. Anatolia, and Turkmenistan. 3. Language. Samuel E. Martin, Roy Andrew Miller, and Sergei Starostin are linguists who have argued that they have common origins. See also Bendor-Samuel, J. ed. Dal momento che tutti i moderni lingue semitiche può essere fatta risalire ad un antenato comune, Semiticists hanno posto sulla importanza localizzare l'Urheimat della lingua proto-semitica. 2008. Current Biology, Volume 20, Issue 4, R162–R165, 23 February 2010. Over a sufficient period of time, in the absence of evidence of intermediary steps in the process, it may be impossible to observe linkages between languages that have a shared Urheimat: given enough time, natural language change will obliterate any meaningful linguistic evidence of a common genetic source. For example, in places where language families meet, like the interface of the Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic language family in Western Ethiopia, the relationship between a group that speaks a language and the Urheimat for that language is complicated by "processes of migration, language shift and group absorption are documented by linguists and ethnographers" in groups that are themselves "transient and plastic.". However, it is possible to have considerable confidence regarding the location of an urheimat of a language or language family from multiple lines of linguistic, genetic and archaeological evidence, even when the precise contours of a proto-language are not firmly established. words attributable to the original Yayoi language) make up 33.8% of the Japanese lexicon, that "kango" (i.e. 500 CE – 1000 CE..  Similar classifications have been made ever since Diedrich Westermann in 1922. Williamson, K. 1971. Recently linguist Edward Vajda has proposed a genetic link between the Na-Dene languages and the Yeniseian languages of the Ket people of central Siberia, suggesting a homeland in Siberia or a back migration of Na-Dene speakers from Beringia.  The evidence is insufficient to determine if this outlier group of Niger–Congo language speakers represent a prehistoric range of a Niger–Congo linguistic region that has since contracted as other languages have intruded, or if instead, this represents a group of Niger–Congo language speakers who migrated to the area at some point in prehistory where they were an isolated linguistic community from the beginning. "A Brief history of Chinese civilization: second edition" Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, pp. The origin of Semitic and the nature of dispersals by Semitic-speaking populations are of great importance to our understanding of the ancient history of… 2004; Blench 2006). The Nostratic theory is the best-known attempt to expand the deep prehistory of the main language families of Eurasia (excepting Sino-Tibetan and the languages of Southeast Asia) to the beginning of the Holocene. Anozie and N. Nzewunwa. "Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology?" , The most likely homeland of the Hmong–Mien languages (aka Miao–Yao languages) is in Southern China between the Yangtze and Mekong rivers, but speakers of these languages may have migrated from Central China either as part of the Han Chinese expansion or as a result of exile from an original homeland by Han Chinese. 107–131 in Sagart, Laurent, Blench, Roger & Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia (eds.). Vovin, Alexander. Malcolm Guthrie and the reconstruction of Bantu prehistory. O'Rourke, Dennis H.; Raff, Jennifer A. A single family may be an isolate. "The ethnolinguistic history of the early Korean peninsula region: Japanese-Koguryoic and other languages in the Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla kingdoms." The Afro-Asiatic languages include Arabic, Hebrew, Berber, and a variety of other languages now found mostly in Northeast Africa, although the exact boundaries of this language family are disputed in the case of a small number of languages spoken by small numbers of individuals in a few localized areas of Sudan and East Africa. Boston University Papers in African History, 1:1–15. Die Sprache der Guang. The Afro-Asiatic Egyptian language of ancient Egypt (whose latest stage is known as Coptic) is one of the two oldest written languages on Earth (the other being the Sumerian language, a language isolate) dating in written form to approximately 3000 BCE, and the Semitic Akkadian language was also attested in writing from a very early date (ca. INTRODUCTION. We also have some idea about the time depth of these languages. It is unlikely that it is possible to reconstruct a historical Tower of Babel linguistic community in which all humans spoke a common language (although we can say with confidence that large stone edifices built by large organized communities of people, which date to the Neolithic era at the earliest, weren't built by any culture on Earth until at least many tens of thousands of years after there was a hypothetical common language of all humans, or even of all Eurasians), or to gain very specific insight about what the language the original proto-Eurasians or the earliest modern humans spoke, although the lack of instances of writing more than about 5,500 years ago, despite the extensive recovery of earlier artifacts and art from prehistory, makes it unlikely that earlier humans had anything approaching a complete written language. Souvenirs of language contacts. pp. Williamson, K. 1988. Urheimat. Those who migrated north to the Levant and North Africa developed into Semitic languages and those that migrated southeast to the Horn of Africa developed into proto-Cushitic, and those that migrated southwest developed into the ancestor of languages like … A genetic relationship between Uralic and the Indo-European languages has also been proposed (see Indo-Uralic languages). "Dravidian languages." Linguistic guesstimates or phylogenetic speculation date the proto-language (and thus the homeland) within a wide range, from 15,000 to 6,000 years ago. Li, Hui (2005). John Benjamins Publishing Company, A Final (?) The current prevailing linguistic view is that Kordofanian languages are part of the Niger–Congo linguistic family, and that among the many languages still surviving in that region these may be the oldest. Scientific American 267.5 (November): 94–99. Geneva June 10–13, 2004. Urheimat ( /ˈʊərhaɪmɑːt/; German pronunciation: [ˈʔuːɐ̯ˌhaɪmaːt]; a German compound of Ur- "primitive, original" and Heimat "home, homeland") is a linguistic term that denotes the homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. 1994. Conservative historical linguists tend to classify a small number of Japanese languages as a language family of their own. Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). The community that originally spoke the Sanskrit language is also called the Vedic civiliation after their semi-legendary account of their community found in Hindu scriptures called the Vedas during the Vedic period from ca. The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where Proto-Afroasiatic speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages. For example, such words as beech and salmon indicated a location within the range of those genera in the north temperate zone. Archaeological evidence is sometimes adduced to support the existence of an urheimat. Asko Parpola, Introduction to Study of the Indus Script, Witzel, Michael (2004).  The lack of written records prior to the earliest Chinese accounts, and the fact that the early Turkic peoples were nomadic pastoralists, and hence mobile, makes localizing and dating the earliest homeland of the Turkic language difficult. E. Patin et al., Inferring the Demographic History of African Farmers and Pygmy Hunter–Gatherers Using a Multilocus Resequencing Data Set. The archaeological cultures in South Asia described as Black and Red Ware (10th century BCE) and the later Painted Gray Ware (starting ca. Semitic, Dravidian and Uralic. Generally speaking, two proposals have been developed: that Afro-Asiatic arose in a Semitic Urheimat in the Middle East aka Southwest Asia, or that Afro-Asiatic languages arose in northeast Africa (generally, either between Darfur and Tibesti or in Ethiopia and the other countries of the Horn of Africa). "Computational Phylogenetics and the Internal Structure of Pama-Nyungan". 36, no. Diachronica 4.1/2:159-223. Current Trends in Linguistics, 7. ed. Von den Hunnen zu den Türken – dunkle Vorgeschichte, in: Zentralasien. In general, more progress has been made in identify linguistic family relationships in North America, where the just under three hundred attested languages are grouped into twenty-nine language families and twenty-seven language isolates (some of which are simply incapable of being classified because they are extinct and were not sufficiently well attested to classify). De Wolf, P. 1971. Some of the lack of classification of indigenous South American languages may be simply attributable to the small number of linguists devoted to the task and the limited amount of information available about many of the languages. Semitic (and by implication also the Chadic, Kushitic and Hamitic branches of the Afro-Asiatic family, assumed to be the result of a pre-4th-millennium immigration of early agriculturists from West Asia into North Africa) is suspected to spring from a common ancestor with IE, even by scholars skeptical of Nostratic adventures. , There is a strong correlation between the population genetic distribution Y-Chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95 and the distribution of Austroasiatic language speakers. This lack of information does not prevent some professional linguists from formulating additional hypothetical nodes (Nostratic) and additional homelands for the speakers.  Malagasy shares much of its basic vocabulary with the Ma'anyan language, a language from the region of the Barito River in southern Borneo. But the languages of the region may also simply be particularly diverse due to separation by great time depth and geographic isolation. The Ainu language or another extinct language of the indigenous people of Japan called the Jōmon may have also been a formative element in the Japanese language as the Yayoi people and the Jōmon people merged into a common Japanese ethnicity around 2300 years ago. 1995. The current prevailing linguistic view is that Kordofanian languages are part of the Niger–Congo language family, and that among the many languages still surviving in that region these may be the oldest. Semitic. It produced dialects instead. History in Africa, 15:261-301. African languages: an introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This culture history theory, developed by Gustaf Kossinna, formalized the presumption that unified ethnicities, such as peoples or tribes, could be associated with archaeological cultures. Vansina, J.T. Turchin, Peter; Peiros, Ilia; Gell-Mann, Murray. (2000). There are several methods to determine the homeland of a given language family. Long Journey to Prehistorical Japan" (in Japanese). Ann Arbor: Karoma. This proposal is attributed to Shinmura Izuru, who proposed it in 1916. when this diversity is wiped out by more recent migrations.. Evidence sweeping everything before it. Proto-Baltic likely emerging in the eastern parts of the Corded Ware horizon. Thomas T.Allsen – Culture and conquest in Mongol Eurasia. , Region in which a proto-language was spoken, It has been suggested that this section be. 1. Attempts to localize the proto-Turkic Urheimat are usually connected with the early archaeological horizon of west and central Siberia and in the region south of it.. Nevertheless, an unknown Urheimat is implied. Gregersen, Edgar A. National Science Museum of Japan. There have been serious linguistic proponents of almost every conceivable possible set of relationships of the Afro-Asiatic language subfamilies to each other, although there is reasonably great consensus concerning the subfamily classification of all but a few of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Comrie (2001:28) noted this when he wrote: Archaeological evidence (e.g., Bellwood 1997) suggests that speakers of pre-Proto-Austronesian spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 6000 BCE. There are at least three plausible approximate locations Afro-Asiatic urheimat, with sometimes widely varying times: Around Ethiopia, around 10000 BCE. The Indo-Aryan languages are all descendants of the Sanskrit language, which it at least as old as 1500 BCE, where Indo-Aryan linguistic features were historically attested by the Hittites in the Mittani language of Western Iran, and was a single Old Aryan language as recently as the 4th century BCE, when it was standardized in written form. The origin of Turkic languages is disputed, both in connection with other language families and in time and place. There is considerable dispute over the time and place of origin of the Turkic languages, but it is undisputed that their origins are not in or near the countries named after the language group, Turkey, a.k.a. The Urheimaten reconstructed using the methods of comparative linguistics typically estimate separation times dating to the Neolithic or later. The earliest Chinese historical records concerning the "Wa" in Japan indicate that they were fractured into many warring states. However, for the Khoe-Kwadi group, a more recent origin by immigration from East Africa (around the beginning of the Christian Era) has been suggested by Tom Güldemann, based on his observation of similarities with Sandawe. The Hague: Mouton. There has been speculation regarding the specific Semitic subfamily of Afro-Asiatic languages, again with the Horn of Africa and Southwest Asia—specifically the Levant—being the most common proposals.  For example, while the evidence from genetics, archeology and historical climate change strongly points to a relatively small number of waves in a fairly short time period from Asia to the Americas, there continues to be intense controversy regarding the classification of the indigenous languages of the Americas, for which there is little direct evidence because all but a couple of those languages were not written in the pre-Columbian era, and in Australia and New Guinea, whose history of human migration and contact is also well documented, in which there were thousands of languages none of which were written prior to European contact. Epub 2009 Aug 25. " Thus, the Bushmen of the Kalahari who occupy the largest geographic region where click languages are spoken are viewed as a relict population far removed from the place where click languages probably originated. One of the best keys to the geographical itinerary of a language is the exchange of lexical and other elements with other languages. Similarly, a language superfamily's proto-language must have been spoken in an Urheimat not more recent than the time depth of the oldest language in the language family. The Maltese language, the only other Semitic language of Europe, is a derivative of the Arabic language as it was spoken in Sicily starting sometime after the rise of the Islamic empire in North Africa. It is relatively closely related to the Arabic language even within the Semitic language family, being part of the same Central Semitic group. "Towards a definitive classification of the world's languages." The Phrygian influence on [pre-]Proto-Armenian would date to about the 7th century BC, in the context of the declining kingdom of Urartu.  The evidence is insufficient to determine if this outlier group of Niger–Congo language speakers represent a prehistoric range of a Niger–Congo linguistic region that has since contracted as other languages have intruded, or if instead, this represents a group of Niger–Congo language speakers who migrated to the area at some point in prehistory where they were an isolated linguistic community from the beginning. In contrast, four of the other main language families of East Asia and Southeast Asia outside the Sino-Tibetan language family, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Hmong–Mien and Tai–Kadai, are generally believed to have at origins at some stage of their development in Southern China. Current estimates are that "wago" (i.e. Robert Blust (1999) suggests that proto-Tai–Kadai speakers originated in the northern Philippines and migrated from there to Hainan (hence the diversity of Tai–Kadai languages on that island), and were radically restructured following contact with Hmong–Mien and Sinitic. For example, the Urheimats in which the proto-languages of the subfamilies are the Indo-European language family necessarily arose more recently than the Proto-Indo-European language family. The Yeniseian language family has been tied by linguist Ed Vajda to the Native American Na-Dene languages of North American (e.g. Exchanges with Other Language Families 3.4.1. Roger Blench, "KORDOFANIAN and Niger–Congo: NEW AND REVISED LEXICAL EVIDENCE" (Draft). Bengtson and Ruhlen (1994) offered a list of 27 "global etymologies". The possibility that the language family is indigenous to the Dravidian area and is a truly isolated genetic unit has also not been ruled out. Trask, R.L. 13. bis 20. 1600-1700 CE. Benedict, Paul K. (1975). There is some dispute over whether the Dardic languages (spoken in northern Pakistan, eastern Afghanistan, and the Indian region of Jammu and Kashmir, most prominently the Kashmiri language) are Indo-Aryan, Iranian or part of the Nurustani languages. Historical records suggest that the South Dravidian language group had separated from a Proto-Dravidian language no later than 700 BCE, linguistic evidence suggests that they probably became distinctive around 1,100 BCE, and some scholars using linguistic methods put the deepest divisions in the language group at roughly 3,000 BCE. By definition in the Middle East. Old Korean is attested in Chinese histories, in the Three Kingdoms period of Korea (ca. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. However, there is more agreement regarding the place of origin of the Benue–Congo subfamily of languages, which is the largest subfamily of the group, and the place of origin of the Bantu languages and the time at which it started to expand is known with great specificity. 45–84) on "Dravidians and Melano-Indians" translated from French by Visuvalingam, Sunthar.  This theory has, however, been rejected by some specialists in Uralic languages, and has in recent times also been criticised by other Dravidian linguists like Bhadriraju Krishnamurti.. In. Gerrit Dimmendaal (2008) "Language Ecology and Linguistic Diversity on the African Continent", Language and Linguistics Compass 2/5:841. 1972. The great linguistic diversity of these regions that presumably had at most one or two languages when first settled by modern humans, given the founding population sizes for them implied by population genetic evidence, reinforces the impossibility of making any meaningful statements about the nature of a proto-language at a time depth of tens of thousands of years. Other than Dene-Yeniseian, and a possible connection between the Eskimo-Aleut language family and the Uralic language family, no proposals of genetic relations between languages of North or South America and languages of Eurasia, Africa, or other parts of the world, have been backed by credible evidence. However, limited genetic evidence from some Khoisan-language speakers in southern Africa suggest an origin "along the African rift and a possible wider East African range. De Wolf, P. 1971. PLoS ONE 2011. A map showing where Dravidian languages are spoken today appears to the right. 1989. Collinder, Björn. Rodrigues, Aryon Dall'Igna, and Ana Suelly Arruda Câmara Cabral (2012). Tyler, Stephen (1968), "Dravidian and Uralian: the lexical evidence". The Iranian Avestan language of Zoroastrian scripture is committed to writing at about this point but was in existence and historically attested long before a script was devised for it. Also, the modern Inuit populations are genetically distinct from other indigenous populations of the Americas. A single family may be an isolate. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has imposed linguistic separation lasting several millennia on many Upper Paleolithic populations in Eurasia, as they were forced to retreat into "refugia" before the advancing ice sheets. Bengtson, John D. and. 3000 BCE through 500 CE by many thousands of years. The Bantu expansion and the SOAS network. . Williamson, K. 1971. The specific origins of most far flung member of this language family, the Malagasy language of Madagascar off the coast of Africa, are described above in the part of this article concerning African languages. "The higher phylogeny of Austronesian and the position of Tai–Kadai." The Seljuk Turks from the 11th century invaded Anatolia, ultimately resulting in permanent Turkic settlement there and the establishment of the nation of Turkey.". Greenberg, J.H., and M. Ruhlen. "Methodological observations on some recent studies of the early ethnolinguistic history of Korea and vicinity." Dongye was a vassal state of Goguryeo in Northeast Korea founded in the 3rd-century BCE that was eventually absorbed by Goguryeo around the 5th century CE. Schirokauer & Brown 2006. José Ignacio Hualde, Joseba Lakarra, Robert Lawrence Trask (1995), Towards a history of the Basque language, p. 81. The people of Anatolia spoke Indo-European language family languages from at least the time of the Hittite Empire (whose expansion to most of Anatolia started ca. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. This is adjacent to the proposed homeland for Proto-Indo-European under the Kurgan hypothesis. A possible focus is the Comb Ceramic Culture of ca 4200 – ca 2000 BCE (shown on the map to the right). Journal of African History, 13. The Turkic languages are now spoken in Turkey, Iran, Central Asia and Siberia. R. Nicolai and F. Rottland. Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. Kayser, Manfred (2010), "The Human Genetic History of Oceania: Near and Remote Views of Dispersal", See, e.g., James, "Genealoogy of Human Language,", Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2022/stories/20031107000807300.htm, http://lists.hcs.harvard.edu/mailman/listinfo/proto-dravidian, http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~fsouth/Proto-DravidianAgriculture.pdf, http://www.harappa.com/script/indusscript.html, "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios", "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists. There are similarities between the Japanese language and the Korean language in lexicon and grammatical features, but there is dispute over whether these denote a common origin, or mere linguistic borrowing due to a sprachbund of neighboring languages that are adjacent to each other. The more recent and more speculative ""Borean" hypothesis attempts to unite Nostratic with Dené–Caucasian and Austric, in a "mega-phylum" that would unite most languages of Eurasia, with a time depth going back to the Last Glacial Maximum. The overlap between the potential areas of origin for these languages in East Africa is particularly notable because includes the regions from which the Proto-Eurasians who brought anatomically modern humans Out of Africa, and presumably their original proto-language or languages originated. Historical inferences from linguistic research in sub-Saharan Africa. The term Afroasiatic Urheimat (Urheimat meaning "original homeland" in German) refers to the 'hypothetical' place where Proto-Afroasiatic speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages. Population genetic evidence suggests that the non-circumpolar indigenous peoples of the Americas have origins in a small common founder population in the Upper Paleolithic era that arrived via a Berginian land bridge from Asia. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. The homeland of the Austroasiatic languages (e.g. Collinder, Björn. This speech area is known as the Urheimat ("original homeland" in German). Die Sprache der Guang. French anthropologist Bernard Sergent, in La Genèse de l'Inde (1997), argued that Finno-Ugric (Uralic) may have a genetic source or have borrowed significantly from proto-Dravidian or a predecessor language of West African origins. Current Trends in Linguistics, 7. ed. Linguisic, archeological and genetic evidence also indicates that this expansion included "independent waves of migration of western African and East African Bantu-speakers into southern Africa occurred. These results indicate that the ancestor of all Semitic languages in our dataset was being spoken in the Near East no earlier than approximately 7400 YBP, after having diverged from Afroasiatic in Africa (Ehret 1995; Ehret et al. This is not always the case. The language of the Scythian people of Central Asia, whose interactions with the Greeks in 512 BCE were attested by Herodotus ca. The classification of the relatively divergent family of Ubangian languages which are centered in the Central African Republic, as part of the Niger–Congo language family where Greenberg classified them in 1963 and subsequently scholars concurred, was called into question, by linguist Gerrit Dimmendaal in a 2008 article..  This presupposes an established view about the internal subgrouping of the language family. This is adjacent to the proposed homeland for Proto-Indo-European under the Kurgan hypothesis. Souvenirs of language contacts. Central Asia and Non-Chinese Peoples of Ancient China (Collected Studies, 731).  The Malagasy language also includes some borrowings from Arabic, and Bantu languages (notably Swahili). This speech area is known as the Urheimat ("original homeland" in German). Herman Bell. General Linguistics, Vol.  The Yayoi also have strong cultural similarities to the Koreans of that time period.. Pegasus Press, University of North Carolina, Asheville, North Carolina. Downloadable Google Books.  For example, a creole language may lack significant inflectional morphology, lack tone on monosyllabic words, or lack semantically opaque word formation, even if these features are found in all of the parent languages of the languages from which the creole was formed.. If the consensus view regarding the origins of the Nilo-Saharan languages which came to East Africa is adopted, and a North African or Southwest Asian origin for Afro-Asiatic languages is assumed, the linguistic affiliation of East Africa prior to the arrival of Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic languages is left open.  It is possible that the Japanese language has roots related to the Ainu language, the historical language of the Yayoi, whatever that may have been, or could have been a creole of both. The term Afroasiatic Urheimat (Urheimat meaning "original homeland" in German) refers to the 'hypothetical' place where Proto-Afroasiatic speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages.Afroasiatic languages are today primarily spoken in the Middle East, North Africa, the … These languages were then suppressed and while they have about a million native speakers, there are relatively few native speakers under the age of twenty. That is, they have no well accepted linguistic family connection, no nodes in a family tree, and therefore no known Urheimat. The inferred population genetic contributions of Turkic populations show a cline from a high point in the East to the a low point in the West. The Uralic homeland is unknown. A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from at least about 3750 BCE in South West Asia during the Early Bronze Age. This family of languages is sometimes described as Paleosiberian, a classification that rests on a belief that it represents a stratum of Siberian populations that preceded the speakers of the other modern languages of Siberia (mostly of the Indo-European and Altaic language families), possibly one that dates back to the Paleolithic era when North America was initially populated. Words that did not fit this geographical location, such as lion, could be explained by more recent borrowings. That is to say, they have no well accepted language family connection, no nodes in a family tree, and therefore no known Urheimat. The Niger–Congo Languages. Beckwith, Christopher I. Old Japanese when first attested had eight vowels, rather than the current five (which were lost within a century of the oldest preserved writings) which was close to the vowel system seen in Uralic and Altaic languages. "In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations" European Journal of Human Genetics (8 September 2010), Dienekes' Anthropology Blog, October 17, 2010. "Austro-Tai Hypotheses". La Tène groups expanded in the 4th century BC to Hispania, the Po Valley, the Balkans, and even as far as Galatia in Asia Minor, in the course of several major migrations. Similarities arise from the creole formation process, rather than from genetic descent. 1995. Two (super-) family proposals, Penutian and Hokan generally along the Pacific coast of North America that are gaining currency among linguists, would reduce the number of language families in North America to about fifteen. Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture. They were at first hunted and then domesticated on the plains of Asia, not in Anatolia.  Its expansion may have been associated with the expansion of Sahel agriculture in the African Neolithic period.. "Japanese Roots". Modern Korean, in contrast, according to proponents of this hypothesis, appears to have stronger connnections the Silla language, spoken in the ancient kingdom of Silla (57 BC – AD 935), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, whose similarity to the Goguryeo language is not clearly established. The subgrouping of Arabic is still debated , as this language shares features in common with both Northwest Semitic and South ... Thread: Proto-Semitic urheimat in the Levant. Paris: Ernest Thorin. Many hypotheses for an Urheimat have been proposed.  Later, the original Austronesian settlers must have mixed with Bantus and Arabs, amongst others. Nakahori, Yutaka (2005). 1900 BCE with the original Indo-Aryan population of South Asia. Y染色体からみた日本人 (Y Senshokutai kara Mita Nihonjin). (2002). The noun class system of Proto-Benue–Congo. Roger Blench, relying particularly on prior work by Professor Kay Williamson of the University of Port Harcourt, and the linguist P. De Wolf, who each took the same position, has argued that a Benue–Congo linguistic subfamily of the Niger–Congo language family, which includes the Bantu languages and other related languages and would be the largest branch of Niger–Congo, is an empirically supported grouping which probably originated at the confluence of the Benue and Niger Rivers in Central Nigeria. The Nuba Mountains: Who Spoke What in 1976?. PLoS Genetics, 2009. Köln, 17:115-147. Herman Bell. , As noted in the Wikipedia article on the Ainu people: "After a new wave of immigration, probably from the Korean Peninsula some 2,300 years ago, of the Yayoi people, the Jōmon were pushed into northern Japan. In Shevoroshkin (1991): 12–41. The Lakovic languages (/ləˈkoʊvɪk/ lə-KOH-vik; Windermere: fi imcduay Lăcof Bjeheondian: [vɪ (ʔ)ɪmˈgduːj ləˈkov]) are a major Trician language family, originally native to Bjeheond.The family is inspired by Semitic, Mon-Khmer and Austronesian languages. Generally speaking, two proposals have been developed: that Afro-Asiatic arose in a Semitic Urheimat in the Middle East aka Southwest Asia, or that Afro-Asiatic languages arose in northeast Africa (generally, either between Darfur and Tibesti or in Ethiopia and the other countries of the Horn of Africa). Okjeo was a minor state in Northern Korea to the North of Dongye that was a subordinate unit of Gojoseon from the 3rd century BCE to 108 BCE, then came under Han rule, and then was a subordinate state of Goguryeo. Similarities arise from the creole formation process, rather than from genetic descent. Burrow, T. (1944), "Dravidian Studies IV: The Body in Dravidian and Uralian", Zvelebil, Kamal (2006). There is a widespread consensus among linguistic scholars that Bantu languages of the Niger–Congo family have a homeland near the coastal boundary of Nigeria and Cameroon, prior to a rapid expansion from that homeland starting about 3000 BCE.. The time and place of the Urheimats of various language family proto-languages spoken by most people alive today is in many cases much more recent than either the Out of Africa date or the origin of farming and herding. Washington, D.C. 112p. Caucasian and Sino-Tibetan: A Hypothesis of S. A. Starostin. The Eskimo–Aleut languages are spoken by native peoples of the Arctic regions of Alaska and Canada and Greenland, generally to the North of Na-Dene linguistic areas (shown on the map on the left). Roger Blench, relying particularly on prior work by Professor Kay Williamson of the University of Port Harcourt, and the linguist P. De Wolf, who each took the same position, has argued that a Benue–Congo linguistic subfamily of the Niger–Congo language family, which includes the Bantu languages and other related languages and would be the largest branch of Niger–Congo, is an empirically supported grouping which probably originated at the confluence of the Benue and Congo Rivers in Central Nigeria. The leading linguistic proponent of this idea in recent times is Alexander Militarev.  It is entirely possible that Eastern Siberian languages most closely ancestral to Eskimo-Aleut are extinct. Roger Blench, "Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology?," Paper for the Symposium "Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence". The statistical method used by Turchin, however, would not discriminate between Jōmon and Yayoi sources for any Altaic linguistic affinities. American Anthropologist 44.576–601. Andronov, Mikhail S. (1971), "Comparative Studies on the Nature of Dravidian-Uralian Parallels: A Peep into the Prehistory of Language Families". 30 Jun. 440 BCE, was also an Iranian language. 'Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language? Fleming, Harold C. 1987.  This account attributes only a small number of words in modern Japanese to Ainu roots. Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and in older sources as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages. "Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan", Sahoo, S.; Singh, A; Himabindu, G; Banerjee, J; Sitalaximi, T; Gaikwad, S; Trivedi, R; Endicott, P, Sengupta, S; Zhivotovsky, LA; King, R; Mehdi, SQ; Edmonds, CA; Chow, CE; Lin, AA; Mitra, M. Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh (2005), "Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups". Ruins of Identity Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands. The argument surrounding the "Proto-Human language", finally, is almost completely detached from linguistic reconstruction, instead surrounding questions of phonology and the origin of speech. ... the internal diversity among the... Formosan languages... is greater than that in all the rest of Austronesian put together, so there is a major, Language families predominantly found in Europe, North Asia and South Asia, Language families predominantly found in Africa and Southwest Asia, Language families predominantly found in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania, Languages spoken predominantly in North and South America. Genetic evidence coroborates evidence from Kadai speaking people's oral traditions that puts a Kadai homeland on Hainan. Many scholars have addressed the question of the origins of the Tai–Kadai languages.. 401-30) surveys the past and potential future contributions that the study of the 30-odd modern South Semitic languages can make to Comparative Semitics. This general concern is a manifestation of the larger issue of "time depth" in historical linguistics.  This proposal, if accurate, would suggest that Na-Dene languages may have arrived in North America after (although not long after) Eskimo-Aleut languages. Genetic data suggest that modern Japanese are descended from both the Yayoi and the Jōmon." Jul 21, 2020 - Explore Leodis Conley's board "Semitic languages" on Pinterest. A common Afro-Asiatic proto-language is necessarily older than these very old written languages which belonged to language families that had already diverged from each other considerably by that point. The Romance languages are all derivative of Latin, a member of this Indo-European language subfamily, which was the common language of the Western Roman Empire that had its roots in Italic dialect spoken in and around the capital, Rome, until the empire collapsed in the 5th century CE. . Blench, R.M. Linguist Roger Blench has suggested that the Nilo-Saharan languages and the Niger–Congo languages may be branches of the same macro-language family. 1972. neither Inuit-Aleut nor Na-Dene) have genetic origins in a single language of the founding population of the Americas, and hence, as controversially proposed by Greenberg, that they all ultimately belong to the same linguistic superfamily, which Greenberg called Amerind.  But, there is not clear evidence of this from efforts to use traditional comparative linguistic methods to classify indigenous Native American languages. Urheimat (/ ˈ ʊər h aɪ m ɑː t /; German pronunciation: [ˈʔuːɐ̯ˌhaɪmaːt]; a German compound of Ur-"primitive, original" and Heimat "home, homeland") is a linguistic term that denotes the homeland of the speakers of a proto-language.A proto-language is a reconstruction of a hypothetical parent language in the Tree model of language evolution. Both the Koreans and the Japanese make use of Chinese ideograms in their written language, whose Chinese origins are not disputed. Carr. Westermann, D. 1922a. The Phrygian, Macedonian, and Greek proto-languages likely also originate in the Balkans. Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. . An example is the Etruscan language, which, even though only partially understood, was found to be related to the Raetic language and to the Lemnian language. These features, and the presence of certain common Semitic lexical items in all Ethio-Semitic languages referring to items that arrived in Africa from the Levant at a time after Semitic languages were known to have been spoken in the Levant, have lent weight to the Levantine proposal.  Thus, in Parpola's view, the urheimat of Dravidian would be in the Indus River Valley. "Sino-Tibeto-Austronesian: An updated and improved argument." However, Harvard Indologist Michael Witzel takes the view—that has received serious academic consideration (ca. Oceanic Linguistics 33.345–368.  One sentence of the language of the Jie, a Xiongnu tribe who founded the Later Zhao state in Chinese history, appears consistent with being a Yeniseian language. words with roots borrowed from Chinese since the 5th century CE) make up 49.1% of Japanese words (and in addition, the Chinese ideograms used in the Japanese written language), that foreign words called gairaigo make up 8.8% of Japanese words, and that 8.3% of Japanese words are konshugo that draw upon multiple languages. Part 2: Vocabulary', in Altaica Budapestinensia MMII, Proceedings of the 45th Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Budapest, June 23–28, pp. , Another method is based on the linguistic migration theory (first proposed by Edward Sapir), which states that the most likely candidate for the last homeland of a language family can be located in the area of its highest linguistic diversity. Urheimat. 2006. The first depiction of historical ethnology of the world separated into the Biblical sons of … The other alternative, that all the other Indo-Europeans left Anatolia, leaving a population behind, does not account for the presence of a Hattic interface in Anatolian, but in none of the others. The noun class system of Proto-Benue–Congo. 2007, 7: 47. The Turkic languages are now spoken in Turkey, Central Asia and Siberia. This is a reflection of the fact that the Daasanach, like the Nyangatom, originally spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, with the ancestral Daasanach later adopting an Afroasiatic language around the 19th century. It is the only group to feature an explicit remnant of the laryngeals, sounds that disappeared in late Proto-Indo-European. In the Near East many distinct Semitic languages persisted across the Fertile Crescent, and for whatever reason the various non-Semitic languages faded and Semitic ones flourished. Jubainville, H. D'Arbois de (1889, 1894).  Old Japanese also had more grammatical similarity to Altaic languages than modern Japanese. Chinese historical records mention the existence of the Yayoi (called "Wa") starting in 57 BCE. Africa-to-Levant hypothesis. (2002). It is therefore identified as the first branch, chronologically, which means that the ancestral Proto-Anatolians were first to become isolated from the Indo-European speech community. The disjoint distribution of Austroasiatic languages suggest that they were once spoken in most of the areas where the Tai–Kadai languages are now dominant. Generally speaking, two proposals have been developed: that Afro-Asiatic arose in a Semitic Urheimat in the Middle East aka Southwest Asia, or that Afro-Asiatic languages arose in northeast Africa (generally, either between Darfur and Tibesti or in Ethiopia and the other countries of the Horn of Africa). Indo-Aryan), Witzel says "As we can no longer reckon with Dravidian influence on the early RV, this means that the language of the pre-Rigvedic Indus civilization, at least in the Panjab, was of (Para-) Austroasiatic nature." Nevertheless, it is a scientific fact that all languages evolve. While there are plausible reasons to infer that the Melanesian languages and the aboriginal Australian languages, respectively, have common origins in a small founding population with a single language, the linguists have not been able to marshal lexical, phonetic and grammatical evidence from these languages in their current form to support these inferences. Navajo), which is discussed below, although the Dene-Yeniseian proposal is not generally accepted. 389–394. The prehistoric range for the Niger–Congo languages has implications, not just for the history of the Niger–Congo languages, but for the origins of the Afro-Asiatic languages and Nilo-Saharan languages whose homelands have been hypothesized by some to overlap with the Niger–Congo linguistic range prior to recorded history. After Turkic migration, by the 10th century CE, most of Central Asia, formerly dominated by Iranian peoples, was settled by Turkic tribes. Hill (2001) proposes instead a homeland further south, making the assumed speakers of Proto-Uto-Aztecan maize cultivators in Mesoamerica, who were gradually pushed north, bringing maize cultivation with them, during the period of roughly 4,500 to 3,000 years ago, the geographic diffusion of speakers corresponding to the breakup of linguistic unity..