[2] Priscus, like Major, may have been merely an epithet used to distinguish him from the later Cato of Utica. It was written by the Roman politician Cato the Elder, a man noted for his devotion to simplicity and love of country life. In his campaign in Hispania, Cato behaved in keeping with his reputation of untiring hard work and alertness. The earliest extant cheesecake recipes are found in Cato the Elder's De Agri Cultura, which includes recipes for three cakes for religious uses: libum, savillum and placenta. it is disputed if they had it at all. His regulations against luxury were very stringent. By strict economy of time he accomplished an immense amount of work; he demanded his dependents practice a similar dedication, and proved himself a hard husband, a strict father, and a severe and cruel master. It’s Cato the Elder’s recipe for ‘Libum‘ from “De Agri Cultura” and it is, quite literally, like nothing I have ever tasted before and it is delightful! In 215 BC, at the height of the Second Punic War and at the request of the tribune of the plebs Gaius Oppius, the Oppian Law (Lex Oppia), intended to restrict the luxury and extravagance of women in order to save money for the public treasury, was passed. Here are the textbook’s main characters; they’re all secretly in love! When Scipio, after much opposition, obtained from the senate permission to transport armed forces from Sicily to Africa, Cato and Gaius Laelius were appointed to escort the baggage ships. [29] He raised the amount paid by the publicani for the right to collect taxes and, at the same time, reduced the contract prices for the construction of public works. Okay, now it's time to bake. Habinek, T. N. (1985). Making Cato the Elder’s ‘Savillum ’ Keep reading merser fortunae fluctibus ipse reference i want to make this again!! He also uttered warnings against the influence of Chaldean astrologers who had entered Italy along with Greek culture.[30]. [1] He was the first to write history in Latin. However, the Tusculan Porcii had never obtained the privileges of the Roman magistracy. He later gave several vehement speeches which he often ended by saying "Carthago delenda est", or "Carthage must be destroyed."[12]. Yet there proved not to be the friendliness of cooperation between Cato and Scipio which ought to have existed between a quaestor and his proconsul. Ancient Romans didn’t have cane sugar, but they did have honey! "Agriculture, Writing, and Cato’s Aristocratic Self-Fashioning". Ancient Romans left records of libum and savillum, which Cato the Elder outlined in De Agri Cultura, one of the oldest surviving examples of Latin prose, in 160 BCE. Foie gras - I mentioned foie gras previously, but beyond the fig-fattened pigs, the ancients used to fatten up all manner of small birds to snack on their livers. Young as he was, the neighboring farmers liked his tough mode of living, enjoyed his old-fashioned and concise proverbs, and had a high regard for his abilities. His epithet "Elder" distinguishes him from his equally famous great-grandson Cato the Younger, who opposed Julius Caesar. Pliny[7] agrees with Cicero. Of the three, placenta is most like most modern cheesecakes, having a crust that is … "Sallust's 'Catiline' and Cato the Censor". Plutarch claims that Scipio, who was disgusted by Cato's severity, was appointed to succeed him but could not convince the senate to censure Cato's administration, and passed his consulship in inactivity. Invited to the townhouse of Flaccus, and ratified by his support, Cato began to distinguish himself in the forum, and became a candidate for assuming a post in the magistracy. Within Roman society a transition was in progress —from Samnite rusticity to Grecian civilization and oriental luxuriance. I shall never cease to entertain fears about her till I hear of her having been levelled with the ground. He revised with unsparing severity the lists of senators and knights, ejecting from either order the men whom he judged unworthy of membership, either on moral grounds or on the basis of their lack of the prescribed means. Un pastel de queso o tarta de queso (véase otros nombres) es un postre muy popular desde el siglo XX hecho a base de ricotta, requesón o queso cheddar, queso quark, azúcar y algunas veces otros ingredientes, tales como: huevos, crema de leche, patata, almendras o frutas (limones o … Livy says nothing of Cato's interference in this matter, but mentions the bitterness with which Fabius blamed Scipio for corrupting military discipline and for having illegally left his province to take the town of Locri. I cannot fucking wait to show you guys the final piece. Cato is portrayed by Vittorio Gassman in Scipione detto anche l'Africano, a 1971 Italian film starring Marcello Mastroianni as Scipio Africanus. Unauthorised plumbing into Rome's aqueducts had always been a problem, as Frontinus records much later. Savillum is a Roman recipe found in De Agri Cultura, the earliest-known work of Roman prose. Plutarch was probably mistaken, judging by the statement in Livy,[23] that in 194 BC, Sextus Digitius was appointed to the province of Hispania Citerior. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Scipio Africanus and his family, and Titus Quinctius Flamininus, may be taken as representative of the new culture; Cato's friends, Fabius and Flaccus, were the leading men in the faction defending the old plainness. E.M. Jellinek, "Drinking and Alcohilics in Ancient Rome". The recipe Zachary and I used to make the savillum (adjacent to cheesecake) was derived from a recipe in Cato the Elder’s “De Agri Cultura”, written in 160 BCE! Here is a recipe from Cato’s De This blog is mainly Classics with some other history and stuff mixed in. Savillum was eaten as part of secunda mesa (dessert) and was one of the Romans’ favourite sweets. Ceaicovschi, K. (2009). From the date of his censorship (184 BC) to his death in 149 BC, Cato held no public office, but continued to distinguish himself in the Senate as the persistent opponent of the new ideas. Even Flaccus hesitated, but his colleague Cato was inflexible, and made a characteristically impolite speech, which was later retold by Livy. He lived soberly, sharing the food and the labours of the common soldier. In 195 BC, when he was only 39 years old, Cato was elected junior consul to his old friend and patron Flaccus. Wherever it was possible, he personally superintended the execution of his orders. Fitting its author’s lifestyle, De Agri Cultura is a Of the three, placenta is most like most modern cheesecakes with a crust that is separately prepared and baked. The phrase bellum se ipsum alet —the war feeds itself— was coined by Cato during this period. [20] His conduct in Hispania were not contradictory with the traditional ideals of a Roman soldier, or with his own firm and over-assertive temper. In ancient Greece, where cheesecake is said to have originated in the third century, a similar recipe may have been offered to athletes at the first Olympic Games in 776 BCE. His own active personality made him willing and eager to make himself available in the service of his neighbors. His epithet "Elder" distinguishes him from his equally famous great-grandson Cato the Younger, who opposed Julius Caesar. Farinae selibram, casei P. II S una conmisceto quasi libum In 198 BC he was made praetor, and obtained Sardinia as his province, with the command of 3,000 infantry and 200 cavalry. The notion that Scipio was appointed successor to Cato in Hispania may have arisen from a double confusion of name and place, since Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was chosen in 194 BC to the province of Hispania Ulterior. Carthage has long been harbouring evil designs, and I accordingly proclaim war against her in good time. According to the chronology of Cicero, Cato was born in 234 BC, in the year before the first Consulship of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus,[n 1] and died at the age of 85, in the consulship of Lucius Marcius Censorinus and Manius Manilius. Having attracted the attention of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome and began to follow the cursus honorum: he was successively military tribune (214 BC), quaestor (204 BC), aedile (199 BC), praetor (198 BC), consul (195 BC) together with Flaccus, and censor (184 BC). Fitting its author’s lifestyle, De Agri Cultura is a During this period, Cato visited Athens where, in trying to prevent the Athenians from listening to the propositions of the Seleucid king, Cato addressed them in a Latin speech, which required an interpreter to be understood by the audience. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 05:50. His operations appear to have been carefully designed, and were coordinated with the plans of other generals in other parts of Hispania. Reay, B. (2005). 23. The recipe Zachary and I used to make the savillum (adjacent to cheesecake) was derived from a recipe in Cato the Elder’s “De Agri Cultura”, written in 160 BCE! savillum and the other recipe this stems from, libum, were from texts by Cato the elder, about 500 years before that. Nonetheless, the less fortunate nobles, envious of this exclusive oligarchy, and critical of the decadence and luxury, formed a party with a more conservative and ascetic ideology. If you are hoping to make either of them, please note that I have not tried these recipes out myself, but simply translated them as clearly and as literally as I can. Flaccus himself was a member of that purist patrician faction which displayed its adherence to the stricter virtues of the Roman character. Marcus Porcius Cato (/ˈkeɪtoʊ/, Latin: [ˈkat̪oː]; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor (Latin: Cato Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. According to Valerius Maximus[8] he survived his 86th year, according to Livy[9] and Plutarch[10] he was 90 years old when he died. In the pauses between campaigns Cato returned to his Sabine farm, where he dressed simply, working and behaving like his laborers. When Cato was very young, after his father's death, he inherited a small property in the Sabine territory, at a distance from his native town. Cato the Elder, their famous descendant, at the beginning of his career in Rome, was regarded as a novus homo (new man), and the feeling of his unsatisfactory position, working along with the belief of his inherent superiority, aggravated and drove his ambition. If Livy is correct, the commission was sent because of the complaints of the inhabitants of Locri, who had been harshly oppressed by Quintus Pleminius, Scipio's legate. There, he spent most of his childhood overseeing the operations of the farm, learning business and the rural economy. Ancient Recipe: Savillum As praetor, he expelled usurers from Sardinia. [31] Other times, "Carthage must be destroyed" was put more compactly as Carthago delenda est or delenda est Carthago. [3] From the number and eloquence of his speeches, he was a gifted orator,[4][5] but Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), and Cato the Elder are now his most common, as well as his most characteristic names, since he carried out the office of Censor with extraordinary standing and was the only Cato who ever held it. He was a historian, the first Latin prose writer of any importance, and the first author of a history of Italy in Latin. Cato the Elder in Aulus Gellius". There is no precise information as to when he first received the title of Cato, which may have been given in childhood as a symbol of distinction. Original text Savillum hoc modo facito. Even Scipio Africanus—who refused to reply to the charge, saying only, "Romans, this is the day on which I conquered Hannibal" and was absolved by acclamation—found it necessary to retire, self-banished, to his villa at Liternum. It is recorded that the services of Cato contributed to the decisive and important victory of Sena at the Battle of the Metaurus, where Hasdrubal was slain. In the decisive Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), which led to the downfall of Antiochus, Cato behaved with his usual valor, and enjoyed good fortune. The law specified that no woman could own more than half an ounce of gold, nor wear a garment of several colours, nor drive a carriage with horses closer than a mile to the city, except to attend public celebrations of religious rites. Gotter, U. Cato, known as "the Elder," was born outside Rome in Tusculum, a town in the region now known as Lazio. I want to make savillum all the time. [14] Plutarch's version, which would seem to attribute to Cato the wrongdoing of quitting his post before his time, is barely consistent with Livy's narrative. It is a sort of portable oven, one of the favorite Cato’s cooking vessels for bread and cheesecakes. Studyblr is @smartstudy. After he reduced the area between the River Iberus and the Pyrenees to a resentful and, as it turned out, temporary obedience, Cato turned his attention to administrative reforms, and increased the revenues of the province by improvements in the working of the iron and silver mines. Levene, D. (2000). According to Aurelius Victor, a revolt in Sardinia was subdued by Cato during his praetorship.[16]. Food and dining in the Roman Empire reflect both the variety of foodstuffs available through the expanded trade networks of the Roman Empire and the traditions of conviviality from ancient Romes earliest times, inherited in part from the Greeks and Etruscans. In 205 BC, Cato was appointed Quaestor, and in the next year (204 BC) he entered upon the duties of his place of work, following Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major to Sicily. Julia. From that time, he began concluding his speeches —on any topic whatsoever— with the cry, "moreover, I advise that Carthage must be destroyed" (Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam). We used our hand-made clay testum to cook the savillum. He managed to benefit by setting tribe against tribe, and took native mercenaries into his pay. Nevertheless, because his speech was an affair of state, it is probable that he complied with the Roman norms of the day in using the Latin language while practicing diplomacy, which was considered as a mark of Roman dignity.[28]. In, Gratwick, A. S. (2002). Take this as a prophecy: when those folk give us their writings they will corrupt everything. His reputation as a soldier was now established; henceforth he preferred to serve the state at home, scrutinizing the conduct of the candidates for public honours and of generals in the field. omg I just had this thought…you know how in The Trojan Women Hecuba is supposed to be sent with Odysseus back to Ithaca…can you imagine the entire Odyssey except that Hecuba is there in every scene telling Odysseus exactly what she thinks of him. He also knew that distinction achieved on the battlefield opened the way to achievements in the higher civil offices. The date of Cato's birth has to be deduced from conflicting reports of his age at the time of his death, which is known to have happened in 149 BC. We don’t know if we’re gonna add a little bit more shading later but here is she! His ancestors for three generations had been named Marcus Porcius, and it was said by Plutarch that at first he was known by the additional cognomen Priscus, but was afterwards called Cato—a word indicating 'common sense that is the result of natural wisdom combined with experience'. At the siege of Tarentum, 209 BC, Cato was again at the side of Fabius. Cato's enmity dated from the African campaign when he quarreled with Scipio for his lavish distribution of the spoil among the troops, and his general luxury and extravagance. All the more if they send their doctors here. He regarded the individual householder as the germ of the family, the family as the germ of the state. He reduced official operating costs, walked his trips with a single assistant, and placed his own frugality in contrast with the opulence of provincial magistrates. It's very relaxing. Early in life, he so far exceeded the previous deeds of his predecessors that he is frequently spoken of not only as the leader, but as the founder of the Porcia gens. 5 months ago What are you using as a leavening agent? Making Cato the Elder’s ‘Savillum’ caecilius-est-pater: fluentisonus: Keep reading I made this today and it turned out great! [clarification needed] The expulsion of L. Quinctius Flamininus for wanton cruelty was an example of his rigid justice. savillum and the other recipe this stems from, libum, were from texts by Cato the elder, about 500 years before that. [16], In 199 BC Cato was chosen aedile, and with his colleague Helvius, restored the Plebeian Games, and gave upon that occasion a banquet in honor of Jupiter. "Cato’s Origines: The Historian and his Enemies". It’s almost like a prototype cheese-cake or a very dense loaf of bread. The wrinkle ridge system Dorsa Cato on the Moon is named after Cato. it cost me a lot of money okay i deserve to show it off. He was struck with horror, along with many other Romans, at the licence of the Bacchanalian mysteries, which he attributed to the influence of Greek manners, and he vehemently urged the dismissal of the philosophers Carneades, Diogenes, and Critolaus, who had come as ambassadors from Athens, on account of what he believed was the dangerous nature of their ideas. Plutarch[24] states that, after his Consulship, Cato accompanied Tiberius Sempronius Longus as legatus to Thrace, but this seems incorrect because, although Scipio Africanus believed that one Consul should have Macedonia, Sempronius was soon in Cisalpine Gaul,[25] and in 193 BC Cato was in Rome dedicating a small temple to Victoria Virgo. Two years later, Cato was one of the group who went with the consul Claudius Nero on his northern march from Lucania to check the progress of Hasdrubal Barca. To Cato the individual life was a continual discipline, and public life was the discipline of the many. The chief magistracies of the state had become almost hereditary for a few wealthy and upper-class families. If I have to read one more sentence about Greeks and their preoccupation with foreskin in vase paintings I am going to die. Marcus Porcius Cato , also known as Cato the Censor (Latin: Cato Censorius), the Elder (Major) and the Wise (Sapiens), was a Roman soldier, senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. [n 2]. [11] Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus had the command in this area, Campania, during the year of his fourth consulship. While Apicius does not include a recipe, you can find one in Columella 's, De re Rustica and Cato the Elder's book On Agriculture. [n 3] For that reason, he suggested to Cato that he shift his ambition to the field of Roman politics. The known fragments of the speeches (or one speech under different names) made after his return attest to the strength of his arguments. it is disputed if they had it at all. Vol 7, No 11, 1976. harv error: no target: CITEREFAstin1978 (, https://web.archive.org/web/20110216165027/http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=Liv5His.sgm&images=images%2Fmodeng&data=%2Ftexts%2Fenglish%2Fmodeng%2Fparsed&tag=public&part=367&division=div2, Public Domain Copy of Plutarch's Lives of Illustrious Men volume 3 Cato the Censor translated by J and W. Langhorne, Cato the Elder by Marcus Tullius Cicero at Perseus Digital Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cato_the_Elder&oldid=991468024, Greco-Roman relations in classical antiquity, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Under the Roman Empire a collection of about 150 political speeches by Cato existed. It was constructed in 312 BC by Appius Claudius Caecus, the same Roman censor who also built the important Via Appia. savillum and the other recipe this stems from, libum, were from texts by Cato the elder, about 500 years before that. In 191 BC, he, along with his old associate Lucius Valerius Flaccus, was appointed as a lieutenant-general (legatus)under the Consul Manius Acilius Glabrio, who had been dispatched to Greece to oppose the invasion of Antiochus III the Great, King of the Seleucid Empire. He imposed a heavy tax upon dress and personal adornment, especially of women, and upon young slaves purchased as favourites. There is some disagreement between Nepos (or the pseudo-Nepos), and Plutarch,[22] in their accounts of this topic. Whether this was out of necessity or merely a choice by Cato remains unclear, however, since the assertion that he might very well have already known Greek at the time can be made from anecdotal evidence. [4] [5] [6] Of the three, placenta is most like most modern cheesecakes, having a crust that is … He had observed Cato's martial spirit and heard his eloquent tongue. We read of multitudes who put themselves to death because of the dishonour after they had been stripped of all their arms, of extensive massacres of surrendered troops, and the frequent harsh plunders. [35], Cato was and remains famous as an author as well. Other authors exaggerate the age of Cato. During his consulship, he enacted the first two of the Porcian Laws, which expanded the protections of Roman citizens against degrading or capricious punishment under the Republic's Valerian Law. [26], The military career of Cato was not yet ended. After the action, the consul hugged Cato with the greatest warmth and attributed to him the whole credit of the victory. I have forbidden you to deal with doctors. The earliest extant cheesecake recipes are found in Cato the Elder’s De Agri Cultura, which includes recipes for three cakes for religious uses: libum, savillum and placenta. Some have argued that if it were not for the impact of Cato's writing, Latin might have been supplanted by Greek as the literary language of Rome. He was selected to act, sometimes as an arbitrator of disputes, and sometimes as a supporter in local causes, which were probably tried in front of recuperatores (the judges for causes of great public interest). In his last years, he was known for strenuously urging his countrymen to prosecute the Third Punic War and to destroy Carthage. Here’s how to say hello! This thing is pretty dense, so you want to make sure that the center is cooked thoroughly, as Cato says, "for it is deepest there." By a daring and difficult advance, he surprised and removed a body of the enemy's Aetolian auxiliaries, who were posted upon the Callidromus, the highest peak of the range of Mount Oeta. "A Matter of Substance: Cato’s Preface to the De Agri Cultura.". In ancient Greece, where cheesecake is said to have originated in the third century, a similar recipe may have been offered to athletes at the first Olympic Games in 776 BCE. Cato left his place of duty after the dispute with Scipio about the latter's alleged extravagance, and returning to Rome, condemned the uneconomical activities of his general to the senate. Cato, De Agricultura 75 - 76 Cato's recipes for libum and placenta are particularly important historical sources, since both of these cakes were recommended for use in religious rituals. The return of Cato seems to have accelerated the enmity of Scipio Africanus, who was Consul in 194 BC and is said to have desired the command of the province in which Cato was harvesting notoriety. He was also one of the very few early Latin authors who could claim Latin as a native language.[36]. They are a worthless and unruly tribe. He soon set sail for his appointed province, Hispania Citerior. After Hannibal was defeated and Rome was resplendent with Carthaginian wealth, tribunes Marcus Fundanius and Lucius Valerius proposed to abolish the Oppian law, but tribunes Marcus Junius Brutus and Titus Junius Brutus opposed doing so. It was not until his eightieth year that he made his first acquaintance with Greek literature, though some think after examining his writings that he may have had a knowledge of Greek works for much of his life. It was during this censorship that his determination to oppose Hellenism was most strongly exhibited, and hence, the behavior from which was derived the title (censor) by which he is most generally distinguished. Savillum is a Roman recipe found in De Agri Cultura, the earliest-known work of Roman prose. Flaccus could not help remarking on Cato's energy, his military talent, his eloquence, his frugal and simple life, and his traditional principles. it is disputed if they had it at all. Revered statesman and soldier, Cato the Elder was the first important writer in Latin prose. [n 4] According to Ben Kiernan, Cato may have made the first recorded incitement to genocide.[34]. it is disputed if they had it at all. I love it when language textbooks are like: Here’s the names of all the chapters! This might include more seafood, fruit platters, and nuts, and even a form of cheesecake known as Savillum for which there’s a recipe from around 160 B.C.E. Then, coming to the aid of forces under Flaccus's command, he began a sudden descent from the hills above the royal camp, and the panic caused by this unexpected movement promptly turned the day in favor of the Romans, and signaled the end of the Seleucid invasion of Greece. [27], During the campaign in Greece under Glabrio, Plutarch's account (albeit rejected by historian Wilhelm Drumann) suggests that before the Battle of Thermopylae, Cato was chosen to prevent Corinth, Patrae, and Aegium from siding with Antiochus. Cato the Elder was born in the municipal town of Tusculum, like some generations of his ancestors. After an interval spent in the pursuit of Antiochus and the pacification of Greece, Cato was sent to Rome by the Consul Glabrio to announce the successful outcome of the campaign, and he performed his journey with such celerity that he had started his report in the senate before the return of Lucius Cornelius Scipio, the later conqueror of Antiochus, who had been sent off from Greece a few days before him. Plutarch reports that the lenient discipline of the troops under Scipio's command and the exaggerated expenses incurred by the general provoked Cato's protests, such that Scipio, immediately afterward, replied angrily, saying he would give an account of victories, not of money. In 181 BC he supported the lex Orchia (according to others, he first opposed its introduction, and subsequently its repeal), which prescribed a limit to the number of guests at an entertainment, and in 169 BC the lex Voconia, one of the provisions of which was intended to limit the accumulation of what Cato considered an undue amount of wealth in the hands of women. Not even the titles of all of these speeches are now known, but fragments of some of them are preserved. And the earliest surviving cheesecake recipes are found in Cato the Elder’s De Agri Cultura, which includes recipes for three cakes for religious uses: libum, savillum, and placenta. His manoeuvres were considered original and successful. The details of the campaign, as related by Livy,[19] and illustrated by incidental anecdotes by Plutarch, are full of horror and they make clear that Cato reduced Hispania Citerior to subjection with great speed and little mercy. His father had earned a reputation as a brave soldier, and his great-grandfather had received a reward from the state for having had five horses killed under him in battle. Making Cato the Elder’s ‘Savillum’ fluentisonus: Keep reading 2 days ago, 1,055 notes () Via marcusantonius illustration-alcove: The Iliad, illustrated by Alexander & Valery Traugot. He claimed to have destroyed more towns in Hispania than he had spent days in that country. Upon their review of his extensive and careful arrangements for the transport of the troops, they determined he was not guilty of Cato's charges. Experts express some disagreement about Cato's early military life. But because Sardinia is rather out of the line of the trip to Rome, it is more likely that the first contact between Ennius and Cato happened at a later date, when the latter was praetor in Sardinia. Cato was inspired to imitate that character, hoping to match the glory of Dentatus. In the course of the year 194 BC, he returned to Rome and was rewarded with the honor of a Roman triumph, at which he exhibited an extraordinary quantity of captured brass, silver, and gold, both coin and ingots. There are three recipes within Cato the Elder’s book that were intended to be used for religious events – one of them being Savillum (honey cheesecake), and the others Libum (unleavened bread with cheese) and Placenta Cake (a layered cheese and honey In 157 BC, he was one of the deputies sent to Carthage to arbitrate between the Carthaginians and Massinissa, king of Numidia. However true this account, Cato used his eloquence and produced detailed financial accounts to successfully defend against criticism of his consulship. That this is a fact rests on the authority of Cato himself, who, like Cicero, often indulged in the habit, offensive to modern taste, of sounding his own praises. savillum and the other recipe this stems from, libum, were from texts by Cato the elder, about 500 years before that. Cato’s cheesecake recipes include a sweet version called savillum and a savory cheesecake called libum, the latter being related to our modern-day word, libations. In due course, my son Marcus, I shall explain what I found out in Athens about these Greeks, and demonstrate what advantage there may be in looking into their writings (while not taking them too seriously). [15], The author of the abridged life of Cato, commonly considered the work of Cornelius Nepos, asserts that Cato, after his return from Africa, put in at Sardinia, and brought the poet Quintus Ennius in his own ship from the island to Italy.

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